Ibraheem or Abraham

Prophet Ibraheem

 

Name:

Abraham(Ibrahim in arabic)

Designated as:

Prophet  and messenger of GOD

Profession:

 

Family Tree/Descendent of/ lineage:

Adam > Seth > Anoush  >  Qinan > Mahlabeel > Yard >  Enoch > Mitoshilkh > Noah > Sam >  Arfghshand >  Shalih >  Aher >  Phaligh >Raghu > Sarough >  Nahur > Tarikh > Abraham

Birth and Teachings:

Abraham is estimated to have been born 2,166 years before Jesus in or around the Mesopotamian

"Worship God, and keep your duty to Him; that is better for you if you did but know.  You worship instead of God only idols, and you only invent a lie.  Lo!  Those whom you worship instead of God own no provision for you.  So seek your provision from God, and worship Him, and give thanks to Him, (for) to Him you will be brought back." (Quran 29:16-19)

Special Qualities:

 Known for his generosity

Miracles performed:

 Fire was turned into coolness for Abraham

Events happened:

  • Abharam Broke Idols in his childhood
  • Was Put into fire but  Fire was turned into coolness
  • He migrate to Egypt with his nephew Lot and wifre Sarah
  • Abharam encounter with egypth Pharoh
  • Angels Meet Abraham to give him news
  • Abharam blessed with boy name Ishmael
  • GOD test Abharam to leave Ishmael and Hajar in Mecca
  • GOD test Abharam to sacrifice his Son Ishmael in Mecca
  • Abraham and Ishmael Build the Kaaba in Mecca

Wife:

Sarah and Hagar

Children’s:

 Ishmael and Isaac

Death:

 Died in Palestine, It was said that Abraham died at the age of one hundred seventy five. Ishmael and Isaac buries there father Abraham

Came on:

 People living in Levant (Baghdad,Palestine,Egypt and Mecca)

Location/Stay:

City of Ur, 200 miles southeast of present-day Baghdad and Haran . later Travlled to Palestine, Egypt and Mecca

Appearance:

 Have a Beard

Scientific Evidence

 Mukame ibrahim

  Kaba

  Zam Zam well

 

 

 

 

Difference between peophet and messenger

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Description of Abraham and his Family 

Some of the People of the Book stated that when Tarikh was seventy five years old, he had Abraham, Nahor (Nohour) and Haran. Haran had a son named Lot. They also said that Abraham was the middle child and that Haran died in the lifetime of his father in the land where he was born, the land of the Chaldeans (Al Kaldanieen), also known as Babylonia. At that time some people worshipped idols of stone and wood; others worshipped the planets, stars, sun and moon; still others worshipped their kings and rulers.

Abraham was born into that atmosphere, into a typical family of that ancient time. The head of the family was not even an ordinary idolater, but was one who totally rejected Allah and who used to make the idols with his own hands. Some traditions claimed that Abraham's father died before his birth and he was raised by an uncle whom Abraham called father. Other traditions said that his father was alive and was named Azer.
Into that family Abraham was born, destined to stand against his own family, against the entire system of his community. In brief, he stood against all kinds of polytheism.

 

In Islam, Abraham is seen as a strict monotheist who calls his people to the worship of God alone.  For this belief, he bears great hardships, even disassociating himself with his family and people through migration to various lands.  He is one who fulfills various commandments of God through which he is tested, proving true to each one.

 

Due to this strength of faith, the Quran attributes the one and only true religion to be the "Path of Abraham", even though prophets before him, such as Noah, called to the same faith.  Because of his tireless act of obedience to God, He gave him the special title of "Khaleel", or beloved servant, not given to any other Prophet before.  Due to the excellence of Abraham, God made prophets from his progeny, from them Ishmael Isaac, Jacob (Israel) and Moses, guiding people to the truth.

 

The lofty status of Abraham is one shared by Judaism, Christianity and Islam alike.  The Jews see him to be epitome of virtue as he fulfilled all the commandments although before they were revealed, and was the first to come to the realization of the One True God.  He is seen as the father of the chosen race, the father of prophets due to which God started his series of revelations.  In Christianity, he is seen as the father of all believers (Romans 4:11) and his trust in God and sacrifice is taken as a model for later saints (Hebrews 11).

 

As Abraham is given such importance, it is worthy that one study his life and investigate those aspects which raised him to the level which God gave him.

 

The Religion of Mesopotamia

 

Archeological discoveries from the time of Abraham paint a vivid picture of the religious life of Mesopotamia.  Its inhabitants were polytheists who believed in a pantheon, in which each god had a sphere of influence.  The large temple dedicated to the Akkadian[10]  moon god, Sin, was the main centre of Ur.  Haran also had the moon as the central godhead.  This temple was believed to be the physical home of God.  The chief god of the temple was a wooden idol with additional idols, or ‘gods’, to serve him.

 

The Great Ziggurat of Ur, the temple of moon god Nanna, also known as Sin.  Shot in 2004, the photograph is courtesy of Lasse Jensen.

 Moon GOD <......................................>

 

Abraham's Childhood 

Abraham's Childhood
He was endowed with spiritual understanding from an early age. Allah enlightened his heart and mind gave him wisdom from childhood. Allah the Almighty stated:
"Indeed We bestowed aforetime on Abraham his (portion of) guidance, and We were Well Acquainted with him( as to his Belief in the Oneness of Allah etc). (Ch 21:51)
During his early childhood Abraham realized that his father made strange statues. One day, he asked him about what it was he made. His father replied that he made statues of gods. Abraham was astonished and he spontaneously rejected the idea. Being a child he played with such statues sitting on their backs as people sit on the backs of donkeys and mules.
One day his father saw him riding the statue of Mardukh and he became furious. He ordered his son not to play with it again.
Abraham asked: "What is this statue, father? It has big ears, bigger than ours."

His father answered: "It is Mardukh, the god of gods, son! These big ears show his deep knowledge."
This made Abraham laugh, he was only seven years old at that time.

 

Abraham's Hatred for Idols 

Years passed and Abraham grew. Since his childhood his heart had been full of hatred for these idols. He could not understand how a sane person could make a statue and then worship what he had made. He noticed that these idols did not eat, drink or talk and they could not even turn themselves right side up if someone turned them upside down. How, then could people believe that such statues could harm or benefit them? Abraham 's people had a big temple full of idols, in the middle of which was a niche accommodating the biggest gods which was of different kinds, qualities and shapes. Abraham, who used to go to the temple with his father when he was a child, greatly despised all that wood and stone. What surprised him was the way his people behaved when they entered the temple; they bowed and started to cry, begging and imploring their gods for help as if the idols could hear or understand these requests!
At first, such a sight seemed funny to Abraham, but later he began to feel angry. Was it not astonishing that all those people could be deceived? What added to the problem was that his father wanted him to be a priest when he was grown. He wanted nothing more from his son that that he revere those statues, yet Abraham never stopped displaying his hatred and disdain of them.

 

Abraham Discovers Allah

One night Abraham left his house to go to a mountain. He walked alone in the dark until he chose a cave in the mountain where he sat resting his back against its wall. He looked at the sky. He had hardly seen it when he remembered that he was looking at planets and stars which were worshipped by some people on earth. His young heart was filled with tremendous pain. He considered what was beyond the moon, the stars and the planets (i.e. Allah) and was astonished that these celestial bodies were worshipped by men when they had been created to worship and obey their Creator, appearing and disappearing at His command

Abraham Reasons with Celestial Worshippers 

Abraham, addressed his people who worshipped celestial bodies as Almighty Allah revealed:

"Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he be one of those who have Faith and certainty.

 

              <...........  Stars  image.....................>  When the night covered him over with darkness he saw a star. He said: "This is my lord." But when it set, he said: "I like not that those who set."  

moon

                              Moon Set

When he saw the moon rising up he said: "This is my lord." but when it set he said: "Unless my Lord guides me, I surely shall become one of the folk who are astray.."

sun

                               Sun Set

Then as his culminating example, he struck an example of something even bigger, one of the most powerful of creation, one without which life itself was an impossibility.

 

"And when he saw the sun rising, he cried: ‘This is my Lord!  This is greater!’  But when the sun set,

he said, ‘O my people!  Surely I am free from that which you associate with God. Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth, away from idolatry, and I am not of those who associate others with God.’" (Quran 6:78)

 

 

Abraham proved to them that the Lord of the worlds was not to be found in the creations that their idols represented, but was, rather, the entity who created them and everything which they could see and perceive; that the Lord does not necessarily need to be seen in order to be worshipped.  He is an All-Able Lord, not bound by limitations as the creations found in this world are. 

His message was simple: 

"Worship God, and keep your duty to Him; that is better for you if you did but know.  You worship instead of God only idols, and you only invent a lie.  Lo!  Those whom you worship instead of God own no provision for you.  So seek your provision from God, and worship Him, and give thanks to Him, (for) to Him you will be brought back." (Quran 29:16-19)

His people disputed with him.

He said: "Do you dispute with me concerning Allah while HE has guided me and I fear not those whom you associate with Allah in worship. (Nothing can happen to me) except when my Lord (Allah) wills something. My Lord comprehends in His Knowledge all things. Will you not then remember? "And how should I fear those whom you associate in worship with Allah (though they can neither benefit nor harm), while you fear not that you have joined in worship with Allah things for which HE has not sent down to you any authority. So which of the two parties has more right to be in security? If you but know." It is those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah and worship none but Him Alone) and confuse not their belief with Zulm (wrong, i.e. by worshipping others besides Allah), for them only there is security and they are the guided. And that was Our proof which We gave Abraham against his people. We raise whom We will in degrees. Certainly your Lord is All Wise, All Knowing. (Ch 6:75-83 Quran).

 

In that debate, Abraham clarified to his people that these celestial bodies do not serve as deities and cannot be worshipped as partners with Allah the Almighty. Indeed these bodies are created things, fashioned, controlled, managed and made to serve. They appear sometimes and disappear at others, going out of sight from our world. However, Allah the Almighty does not lose sight of anything, and nothing can be hidden from Him. He is without end, everlasting without disappearance. There is no other deity but Allah.

Abraham made clear to them, first that the celestial bodies are unworthy of worship and second that they are among the signs of Allah.

Almighty Allah commanded:
"And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate to Allah Who created them if you really worship Him. (Ch 41:37)

Abraham's reasoning helped to reveal the truth, and then the conflict between him and his people began for the worshippers of the stars and planets did not stand mute. they began arguing and threatening Abraham.

Abraham Reasons with Idolators

The curtains are drawn on the first category of the people, those who were worshipping celestial bodies. the next situation reveals the second group, those who were practicing idolatry. Allah gave Abraham (pbuh) the reasoning he needed the first time and every time he argued with his people.

Almighty Allah declared:
"And that was Our Proof which We gave Abraham against his people. We raised whom We will in degrees. Certainly your Lord is All Wise, All Knowing. (Ch 6:83)


Abraham did his best to make his people heedful to the belief in the oneness of Almighty Allah and to the worship of Him alone. He bade them to firmly renounce the worship of idols. HE said to his father and his people:


"What are these images, to which you are devoted?" they said: "We found our fathers worshipping them." He said: "Indeed you and your fathers have been in manifest error." They said: "Have you brought us the truth, or are you one of those who play about?" He said: "Nay, your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Who created them and of that I am of the witnesses." (Ch 21:52-56)

Abraham reasons with his Father 

All was finished between Abraham and his people and the struggle began. the most amazed and furious was his father (or his uncle who had raised him), for as it is well known, he not only worshipped idols but sculpted and sold them as well. Abraham felt that it was his duty as a good son to advise his father against this evil so that he could be saved from Allah's punishment. Being a wise son he did not make his father feel foolish, nor did he openly laugh at his conduct. He told him that he loved him, thereby hoping to generate fatherly love. Then he gently asked him why he worshipped lifeless idols who could not hear, see or protect him. before his father could become angry he hastily added:

"O my father! Verily! There has come to me of knowledge that which came not unto you. So follow me. I will guide you to a Straight Path. O my father! Worship not Satan. Verily! Stan has been a rebel against the Most Beneficent (Allah). O my father! Verily! I fear lest a torment from the Most Beneficent (Allah) overtake you as that you become a companion of Satan (in the Hellfire)."

"He (the father) said: ‘Do you reject my gods, O Abraham?  If you do not stop, I will indeed stone you.  So get away from me safely before I punish you.’" 

Abraham said: "Peace be on you! I will ask Forgiveness of my Lord for you. Verily! He is unto me, Ever Most Gracious. And I shall turn away from you and from those whom you invoke besides Allah." (Ch 19:43-48)

 

Abraham debates with the Idolaters 

His father's harsh treatment did not stop Abraham from delivering the message of truth. Angry and sad to see people prostate before idols, he was determined to stamp out these practices and went to the town to debate with the people knowing full well that he might suffer harm.
Like a wise doctor searching for the cause of a sickness so as to prescribe the proper cure, or like a judge who questioned the accused sharply so that he mighty detect the truth.

Abraham asked them:

"Do the idols see you when you prostrate before them? Do they benefit you in any way." They quickly tried to defend their beliefs. They argued that they knew the idols were lifeless but that their forefathers had worshipped them; to them this was proof enough for their belief.


Abraham explained that their forefathers had been wrong. This angered them and they retorted:

"Are you condemning our gods and our forefathers? Or are you just joking?" Abraham showed no fear as he replied: "I am serious. I come to you with a true religion. I have been sent with guidance from our Lord Who alone is worthy of worship, Who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, and Who regulates all affairs of life, unlike the dumb idols which are just stone and wood."


To convince them that the idols could not harm him, he challenged: "I have already condemned them; of they had any power they would have harmed me by now!"

Abraham reasons with the Idolaters, Second Time 

Almighty Allah recounted:


"Recite to them the story of Abraham. When he said to his father and his people. "What do you worship?" They said: "We worship idols, and to them we are ever devoted." He said: "Do they hear you when you call on them? OR do they benefit you or do they harm you?" They said: "Nay but we found our father doing so." He said: "Do you observe that which you been worshipping, You and your ancient fathers? Verily! They are enemies to me, save the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists); Who has created me and it is HE Who guides me and it is HE Who feeds me and gives me to drink. And when I am ill, it is He who cures me; and Who will cause me to die and then will bring me to life again and Who I hope will forgive me my faults on the Day of Resurrection." (Ch 26:69-82 Quran).


In another surah The Almighty revealed:

"And remember Abraham when he said to his people: "Worship Allah Alone and fear Him that is better for you if you did but know. You worship besides Allah only idols and you only invent falsehood. Verily, those whom you worship beside Allah have no power to give you provision, so seek your provision from Allah Alone, you will be brought back. And if you deny then nations before you have denied their Messengers. the duty of the Messenger is only to convey the Message plainly." See they not how Allah originates creation, then will repent it. Verily, that is easy for Allah. Say: "Travel in the land and see how Allah originated creation and then Allah will bring forth (resurrect) the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death) verily, Allah is Able to do all things." He punishes whom HE wills and shows mercy to whom He wills, and to Him you will be returned. And you cannot escape in the earth or in the heaven. And besides Allah you have
neither any Wali (Protector, or guardian) nor any Helper. And those who disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, lessons, signs, evidences, verses, revelations etc) of Allah and the Meeting with Him, it is they who have no hope of My Mercy, and it is they who will have a painful torment. (CH 22:16-23 Quran)


Abraham Breaks the Idols


He explained to them the beauty of Allah's creation, His power and wisdom. Idol worship is detested by Allah for Allah is the Lord of the universe Who created mankind, guided him and provided him with food and drink and cured him when he was sick and Who will cause him to die and be raised up again. It was He to Whom Abraham prayed and Who would forgive his sins on the Day of Judgment. However, they would not give up but clung fast to idolatry. Abraham left his father's house and abandoned his people and what they worshipped. He decide to do something about their state of disbelief, but did not reveal it. He knew that there was going to be a great celebration on the other bank of the river which would be attended by all the people. Abraham waited until the city was empty, then came out cautiously, directing his steps towards the temple. the streets leading to it were empty and the temple itself was deserted for the priests had also gone to the festival outside the city. Abraham went there carrying a sharp axe. He looked at the stone and wood statues of the gods and at the food laid in front of them as offerings.

He approached one of the statues and asked:

"The food in front of you is getting cold. Why don't you eat?" the statue kept silent and rigid. Abraham asked all the other statues around him:
"Will you not eat of the offering before you?" (Ch 37:91)


He was mocking them for he knew they would not eat. He once again asked then:


"What is the matter with you that you do not speak?" (Ch 37:92)


He then raised his axe and started smashing the false gods worshipped by the people. He destroyed them all except one on whose neck he hung the axe. After this his anger subsides and he felt at peace. He left the temple. He had fulfilled his vow to show his people a practical proof of their foolishness in worshipping something other than Allah.

The Idolaters Question Abraham


When the people returned, they were shocked to see their gods smashed to pieces, lying scattered all over the temple. They began to guess who had done that to their idols and Abraham's name came to their minds.


Allah the Almighty said: they said:


"Who has done this to our aliah (gods)? He must indeed be one of the wrongdoers." They said: "We heard a young man talking against them who is called Abraham." They said: "Then bring him before the eyes of the people, that they may testify." they said: "Are you the one who has done this to our gods, O Abraham?" Abraham said: "nay, this one, the biggest of them (idols)
did it, Ask them, if they can speak!"So they turned to themselves and said: "Verily you are the Zalimun (polytheists, and wrongdoers)." Then they turned to themselves (their first thought and said): "Indeed you (Abraham) know well that these idols speak not?" Abraham said: "DO you then worship besides Allah, things that can neither profit you nor harm you? If upon you, and upon that which you worship besides Allah! Have you then no sense?" (Ch 21:59-67 Quran)


Furious, they demanded that Abraham be arrested. Abraham did not resist, this was precisely what he had been aiming for, so that he could show them up in public for their foolish beliefs. At the trial they asked him if he was responsible for breaking the idols. Smiling, he told them to ask the biggest idol which was still whole. He told them that he must be the culprit! They replied that he knew well that the idol could not speak or move which gave Abraham the chance to prove the foolishness of worshipping these lifeless objects.
They then realized the senselessness of their beliefs; however, their arrogance would not allow them to admit their foolishness. All they could do was to use their power of authority as tyrants usually do to punish Abraham. They kept him in chains and planned their revenge.

The Idolaters Try to burn Abraham 

Anger was burning in their hearts. They decided to throw Abraham into the biggest fire they could build. All the citizens were ordered to gather wood as a service to their gods. Ignorant, sick women vowed that if they were cured they would donate so much wood to burn Abraham. For several days they collected fuel. They dug a deep pit, filled it with firewood and ignited it. They brought a catapult with which to cast Abraham into the fire. Abraham was put on the catapult, his hands and feet were tied. The fire was ready with its flame reaching the sky. The people stood away from the pit because of the great heat. Then the chief priest gave his order to cast Abraham into the fire.

<pic of Catapult..............................>

<Pic....of Obraheem in fire (fire scenario)........................>

 

The angel Gabriel came near Abraham's head and asked him: "O Abraham do you wish for anything?" Abraham replied: "Nothing from you."

 

 

Abraham did not flinch in the face of a fiery death even at this tender age; rather his last words before entering it were,

 

"God is sufficient for me and He is the best disposer of affairs." (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

 

 

Here again is an example of Abraham proving true to the trials he faced.  His belief in the True God was tested here, and he proved that he was even prepared to surrender his existence to the call of God.  His belief was evidenced by his action.


The catapult was shot and Abraham was cast into the fire.

 

God had not willed that this be the fate of Abraham, for he had a great mission ahead of him.  He was to be the father of some of the greatest prophets known to humanity.  God saved Abraham as a sign for him and his people as well.

 

 Allah the Almighty had issued His command:


"O fire! Be you coolness and safety for Abraham." (Ch 21:69 Quran)

 

The fire submitted to the will of Allah, becoming cool and safe for Abraham. It only burned his bonds, and he sat in the midst of the fire as if he were sitting in a garden. He glorified and praised Allah the Almighty, with a heart that contained only his love for Allah. There was not any vacant space therein for fear, awe, or worry. It was filled with love only.
Fear and awe were dead, and the fire was turned into coolness, making the air pleasant. Those who love Allah as Abraham do did not fear.

 

The Faith of the Believers


Allah declared:


"Those (believers) unto whom the people (hypocrites) said: "Verily! the people (pagans) have gathered against you (a great army), therefore, fear them." but it only increased them in Faith, and they said: Allah Alone is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us." So they returned with Grace and Bounty from Allah. No harm touched them; and they followed the good Pleasure of Allah. Allah is the Owner of Great bounty. It is only Satan that suggests to you the fear of his Auliya (supporters and friends, polytheists, disbeliveers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad) so fear them not but fear Me if you are true believers." (Ch 3:173-175 Quran)


The throng, the chiefs, and the priests sad watching the fire from a distance. It was burning their faces and nearly suffocating them. It kept burning for such a long time that the disbeliveers thought it would never be extinguished. When it did burn out, they were greatly amazed to find Abraham coming out of the pit untouched by the fire. Their faces were black from the smoke, but his was bright with the light and grace of Allah. The raging fire had become cool for Abraham and had only charred the ropes which held him. He walked out of the fire as if he were walking out of a garden. Cries of astonishment were heard from the heathens.


"They wanted to harm him, but We made them the worst losers. (Ch 21:70)

This miracle shamed the tyrants, but it did not cool the flame of anger in their hearts. However after his event many of the people followed Abraham, although some kept their belief a secret for fear of harm or death at the hands of the rulers.

Abraham challenges those who proclaim themselves as gods, King Namrud 

Abraham had established a definite reasoning against idolaters. Nothing was left for him except to reason against the people who proclaimed themselves gods.
When the king, Namrud, heard of Abraham's safe exit from the fire he became very angry. He feared that the status of godhead he had proclaimed for himself was not challenged by an ordinary human being. He summoned Abraham to the palace and held a dialogue with him which Allah Almighty recounted in Quran:

 

"Have you not considered him who had an argument with Abraham about his Lord, because God had given him the kingdom?" (Quran 2:258)

Abraham’s logic was undeniable,

"‘My Lord is He Who gives life and causes death.’  He answered: ‘I give life and cause death.’" (Quran 2:258)

The king brought forth two men sentenced to death.  He freed one and condemned the other.  This reply of the king was out of the context and utterly stupid, so Abraham put forth another, one which would surely silence him.

"Abraham said: ‘Lo!  God causes the sun to rise in the east, so you cause it to come up from the west.’  Thus was the disbeliever absolutely defeated.  And God guides not wrongdoing folk." (Quran 2:258)

 

Abraham's fame spread throughout the entire kingdom. People talked about how he had been saved from the blazing fire and how he had debated with the king and left him speechless.

 

Abraham in Migration

ibraheem migrated map pic<...............................>

Abraham continued calling people to believe in Allah, exerting a great effort to guide his people to the right path. He tried every means to convince them. However in spite of his love and care for his people, they felt angry and deserted him. Only one woman and one man of his people shared his belief in Allah. The woman's name was Sarah and she became his wife. The man's name was Lut and he became a prophet.

After years of ceaseless calling, faced with the rejection of his people, God commanded Abraham to disassociate from his family and people.

When Abraham realized that no one else was going to believe in his call, he decided to emigrate. He left his people and traveled with his wife and Lot to a city called Ur, then another called Haran, and then to Palestine. Allah the Almighty told us:
" So Lut believed in him (Abraham's message of Islamic Monotheism). He (Abraham) said: "I will emigrate for the sake of my Lord. Verily, He is the All Mighty, the All Wise." (Ch 29:26)

They migrated together to a blessed land, the land of Canaan, or Greater Syria where, according to Judeo-Christian traditions, Abraham and Lot divided their people west and east of the land they had migrated

 

"And We rescued him and Lot to the land which We have blessed for the worlds." (Quran 21:71)

 

Egypt Pharoh

 

Abraham stayed in Canaan for several years going from city to city preaching and inviting people to God until a famine forced him and Sarah to migrate to Egypt..  In Egypt was a despotic Pharaoh who had the passionate desire to take possession of married women.

 

Abraham had known that Sarah would catch his attention, so he told her that if the Pharaoh asked her, that she should say that she is the sister of Abraham. When they entered his kingdom, as expected, the Pharaoh asked about his relationship with Sarah, and Abraham replied that she was his sister.  Although the answer did alleviate some of his passion, he still took her captive.  But the protection of the Almighty saved her from his evil plot.  When Pharaoh summoned Sarah to act on his demented passions, Sarah turned to God in prayer.  The moment Pharaoh reached for Sarah, his upper body stiffened.  He cried to Sarah in distress, promising to release her if she would pray for his cure!  She prayed for his release.  But only after a failed third attempt did he finally desist.  Realizing their special nature, he let her go and returned her to her supposed brother.

 

 Sarah returned while Abraham was praying, accompanied by gifts from the Pharaoh, as he had realized their special nature, along with his own daughter Hagar as well, according to Judeo-Christian traditions, as a handmaiden[5].  She had delivered a powerful message to the Pharaoh and the pagan Egyptians

The Angels Meet Abraham:

Prophet Abraham, the uncle of Prophet Lot, received three guests.  Known for his generosity, Prophet Abraham roasted a calf but to his dismay, the guests refused to eat.  This was very unusual.  Travellers are usually hungry and the fact that these guests refused his generosity made Prophet Abraham very uneasy.  The guests saw his uneasiness and   tried to put his fears to rest.  They said, “Do not be afraid!” (Quran 15:53) His fears allayed, Prophet Abraham asked his guests what business had bought them to his town.

Allah the Almighty recounted this story:
"And tell them about the guests (angels) of Abraham. When they entered unto him, and said: "Salaaman (peace)!" Abraham said: "Indeed! We are afraid of you." They (the angels) said: "Do not be afraid! We give you glad tidings of a boy (son) possessing much knowledge and wisdom." (Abraham) said: "Do you give me glad tidings (of a son) when old age has overtaken me? Of what then is your news?" They (the angels) said: "We give you glad tidings in truth. So be not of the despairing." Abraham said: "And who despairs of the Mercy of his Lord except those who are astray?" (Abraham again) said: "What then is the business on which you have come, O Messengers?" They (the angels) said: "We have been sent to a people who are Mujrimeen (criminals, disbeliveers, polytheists, sinners). (All) except the family of Lot. Them all we are surely going to save (from destruction)." Except his wife, of whom We have decreed that she shall be of the those who remain behind (she will be destroyed). Then when the Messengers (the angels) came unto the family of Lot, he said: "Verily! You are people unknown to me." They said: "Nay! we have come to you with that (torment) which they have been doubting. And we have brought to you the truth (the news of the destruction of your nation) and certainly, we tell the truth. Then travel in a part of the night with your family, and you go behind them in the rear, and let no one amongst you look back, but go on to where you are ordered." And We made known this decree to him, that the root of those (sinners) was to be cut off in the early morning The inhabitants of the city came rejoicing (at the news of the young men's arrival). Lot said: "Verily! These are my guests, so shame me not. And fear Allah and disgrace me not." They (people of the city) said: "Did we not forbid you to entertain (or protect) any of the Alamin
(people, foreigners strangers etc) from us?" Lot said: "These (the girls of the nation) are my daughters to marry lawfully) if you must act so." Verily, by your life (O Muhammad), in their wild intoxication they were wandering blindly. So As Saliha (torment, awful cry etc) overtook them at the time of sunrise; and We turned (the towns of Sodom in Palestine) upside down and rained down on them stones of baked clay. Surely! In this are signs for those who see (or understand or learn the lessons from the Signs of Allah). And verily! They (the cities) are right on the highroad (from Mecca to Syria, i.e. the place where the Dead Sea is now). Surely! Therein is indeed a sign for the believers." (Ch 15:51-77 Quran)

 

Note : Major difference between Chrisntans and muslims  believe in this story is that christans believe here that Jesus/GOD came down to meet Abharam and to give him news where as Muslims believe they were angels as mentioned in Quran.

Birth of Ishmael

After they had returned to Palestine,  Sarah and Abraham continued to be childless, despite divine promises that he would be granted a child.  As the gifting of a handmaid by a barren woman to her husband in order to produce offspring seems to be a common practice of that day, Sarah suggested to Abraham that he take Hagar as his concubine.  Some Christian scholars say of this event that he actually took her as his wife.  Whichever case it may be, in Jewish and Babylonian tradition, any offspring born to a concubine would be claimed by the concubine’s former mistress and be treated exactly the same as a child born to her, including matters of inheritance.  While in Palestine, Hagar bore him a son, Ishmael.

Abraham in Mecca

When Ishmael was still nursing, God yet again chose to test the faith of his beloved Abraham and commanded him to take Hagar and Ishmael to a barren valley of Bakka 700 miles southeast of Hebron.  In later times it would be called Mecca.  Indeed it was a great test, for he and his family had longed for such a time for offspring, and when their eyes were filled with the joy of an heir, the commandment was enacted to take him to a distant land, one known for its barrenness and hardship.

So Abraham, after having sojourned with Hagar and Ishmael, left them there with a skin of water and leather bag full of dates.  As Abraham began walking away leaving them behind, Hagar became anxious as to what was happening.  Abraham did not look back.  Hagar chased him, ‘O Abraham, where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we can enjoy, nor is there anything here?’

Abraham hurried his pace.  Finally, Hagar asked, ‘Has God asked you to do so?’

Suddenly, Abraham stopped, turned back and said, ‘Yes!’

Feeling a degree of comfort in this answer, Hagar asked, ‘O Abraham, to whom are you leaving us?’

‘I am leaving you to God’s care,’ Abraham replied.

Hagar submitted to her Lord, ‘I am satisfied to be with God!’

While she traced her way back to little Ishmael, Abraham proceeded until he reached a narrow pass in the mountain where they would not be able to see him.  He stopped there and invoked God in prayer:

"Our Lord! I have settled some of my offspring in a valley barren from any cultivation, by you Sacred House, our Lord, so they may establish the prayer.  So make the hearts of people yearn towards them, and provide them with all types of fruits that they may be grateful." (Quran 14:37)

Soon, the water and dates were gone and Hagar’s desperation increased.  Unable to quench her thirst or to breastfeed her little baby, Hagar began searching for water.  Leaving Ishmael under a tree, she began climbing the rocky incline of a nearby hill.  ‘Maybe there is a caravan passing by,’ she thought to herself.  She ran between the two hills of Safa and Marwa seven times looking for signs of water or help, later personified by all Muslims in Hajj.  Fatigued and distraught, she heard a voice, but could not locate its source.  Then, looking down in the valley, she saw an angel, who is identified as Gabriel in Islamic sources[15], standing next to Ishmael.  The angel dug into the ground with his heel next to the baby, and water came gushing out.  It was a miracle!  Hagar tried to make a basin around it to keep it from flowing out, and filled her skin.[16]  ‘Do not be afraid of being neglected,’ the angel said, ‘for this is the House of God which will be built by this boy and his father, and God never neglects his people.’[17] 

This well, called Zamzam, is flowing to this day in the city if Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula.

            Scientific evidence : finding on zam zam well

 

 

It was not long afterwards that the tribe of Jurham, moving from southern Arabia, stopped by the valley of Mecca after seeing the unusual sight of a bird flying in its direction, which could only mean the presence of water.  They eventually settled in Mecca and Ishmael grew up among them.

 

Note :A similar account of this well is given in the Bible in Genesis 21.  In this account,  the reason for moving away from the babe was to avoid seeing him die rather than a search for help.  Then, after the baby had begun wailing with thirst, she asked God to relieve her of seeing him die.  The appearance of the well was said to be in response to the crying of Ishmael, rather than her supplication, and no effort from Hagar to find help is reported there.  Also, the Bible tells that the well was in the wilderness of Paran, where they dwelt afterwards.  Judeo-Christian scholars often mention that Paran is somewhere north of the Sinai Peninsula, due to the mention of Mt. Sinai in Deuteronomy 33:2.  Modern biblical archaeologists, however, say that Mt. Sinai is actually in modern day Saudi Arabia, which necessitates that Paran be there as well.[18]

 

Abraham Sacrifices His Son

 

 

It had been close to ten years since Abraham had left his wife and baby in Mecca in the care of God.  After a two month journey, he was surprised to find Mecca a lot different than how he had left it.  The joy of reunion was soon interrupted by a vision which was to be the ultimate test of his faith.  God commanded Abraham through a dream to sacrifice his son, the son he had had after years of prayers and had just met after a decade of separation.

 

 

We know from the Quran that the child to be sacrificed was Ishmael, as God, when giving the glad tidings of the birth of Isaac to Abraham and Sarah, also gave the glad tidings of a grandson, Jacob (Israel):

 

"…But we gave her glad tidings of Isaac, and after him, of Jacob." (Quran 11:71)

 

Note :

Similarly, in the biblical verse Genesis 17:19, Abraham was promised:

"Your wife Sarah shall bear you a son whose name shall be Isaac.  I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant [and] with his seed after him."

Because God promised to give Sarah a child from Abraham and grandchildren from that child, it is neither logically nor practically possible for God to command Abraham to sacrifice Isaac, since God neither breaks his promise, nor is He the "author of confusion."

Although Isaac’s name is explicitly mention as the one who was to be sacrificed in Genesis 22:2, we learn from other Biblical contexts that it is clear interpolation, and the one to be slaughtered was Ishmael.

"Thine Only Son"
In the verses of Genesis 22, God commands Abraham to sacrifice his only son.  As all scholars of Islam, Judaism and Christianity agree, Ishmael was born before Isaac.  From this, it would not be fit to call Isaac the only son of Abraham.

 It is true that Judeo-Christian a scholars often argue that since Ishmael was born to a concubine, he is not a legitimate son.  However, we have already mentioned earlier that according to Judaism itself, the gifting of concubines from barren wives to their husbands in order to produce offspring was a common, valid and acceptable occurrence, and the child produced by the concubine would be claimed by the wife of the father[1], enjoying all rights as her, the wife’s, own child, including inheritance.  Furthermore, they would receive a double the share of other children, even if they were "hated"[

This is also similar to Leah and Rachel, the wives of Jacob son of Isaac, giving their maids to Jacob to produce offspring (Genesis 30:3, 6. 7, 9-13).  Their children were Dan, Nepthali, Gad and Asher, who were from the twelve sons of Jacob, the fathers of the twelve tribes of Israelites, and therefore valid heirs[3].

From this, we understand that Sarah believed that a child born to Hagar would be a fulfillment of the prophecy given to Abraham, and be as if he was born to her own self.  Thus, according to this fact alone, Ishmael is not illegitimate, but a rightful heir.

God Himself regards Ishmael as a valid heir, for, in numerous places, the Bible mentions that Ishmael is a "seed" of Abraham.  For example, in Genesis 21:13:

"And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.

There are many other reasons which prove that it was Ishmael and not Isaac who was to be sacrificed, and God willing

 

Abraham consulted his son to see if he understood what he was commanded by God

"So We gave him the good news of a forbearing son.  And when (his son) was old enough to help in his daily affairs, (Abraham) said: O my dear son, I have seen in a dream that I must sacrifice you.  So look, what think you?  He said: O my father!  Do that which you are commanded.  God willing, you shall find me of the patient." (Quran 37:101-102)

 

Indeed if a person was told by their father that they were to be killed due to a dream, it would not be taken in the best of manners.  One may doubt the dream as well as the sanity of the person, but Ishmael knew the station of his father.  The pious son of a pious father was committed to submit to God.  Abraham took his son to the place where he was to be sacrificed and laid him face down.  For this reason, God has described them in the most beautiful of words, painting a picture of the essence of submission; one which brings tears to the eyes:

 

 

"And when they both submitted (to the command of God), and he (Abraham) laid him (Ishmael) face down upon his forehead (in order to be sacrificed)." (Quran 37:103)

 

 

Just as Abraham’s knife was poised to descend, a voice stopped him

"We called to him: O Abraham: You have indeed fulfilled the vision.  Lo!  Thus do We reward the good.  Lo!  That verily was a clear test." (Quran 37:104-106)

 

Indeed, it was the greatest test of all, the sacrificing of his only child, one born to him after he had reached an old age and years of longing for progeny.  Here, Abraham showed his willingness to sacrifice all his belongings for God, and for this reason, he was designated a leader of all humanity, one whom God blessed with a progeny of Prophets.

"And when his God tested Abraham with various commands, and he proved true to each one." He (God) said, indeed I have made you a leader of humanity.  He (Abraham) said (requesting of God), ‘and from my progeny." (Quran 2:124)

Ishmael was ransomed with a ram,

‘…then We redeemed him with a momentous sacrifice.’ (Quran 37:107)

Note : It is this epitome of submission and trust in God which hundreds of millions of Muslims reenact every year during the days of Hajj, a day called Yawm-un-Nahr – The Day of Sacrifice, or Eid-ul-Adhaa - or the Celebration of Sacrifice.

Abraham returned to Palestine, and upon doing so, he was visited by angels who give him and Sarah the good news of a son, Isaac,

"Lo!  We bring you good tidings of a boy possessing wisdom." (Quran 15:53)

It is at this time that he is also told about the destruction of the people of Lot

 

Abraham and Ishmael Build the Kaaba

 

kaba pic <...............center of earth............................>

 

After a separation of several years, again the father and son met.  It was on this journey that the two built the Kaaba on God’s command as a permanent sanctuary; a place laid for the worship of God.  It was here, in this same barren desert where Abraham had left Hagar and Ishmael earlier, that he supplicated to God to make it a place where they would establish the prayer, free from idol worship.

 

"My Lord!  Make safe this territory, and preserve me and my sons from worshipping idols.  My Lord!  Lo!  They have led many of people astray.  But whoever follows me, he verily is of me.  And whoever disobeys me, still You are Forgiving, Merciful.  Our Lord!  Lo!  I have settled some of my posterity in an uncultivable valley near to Your Holy House, our Lord!  That they may establish proper worship; so incline some hearts of men that they may yearn toward them, and provide You them, with fruits in order that they may be thankful.  Our Lord!  Lo!  You know that which we hide and that which we proclaim.  Nothing in the earth or in the heaven is hidden from God.  Praise be to God Who has given me, in my old age, Ishmael and Isaac!  Lo!  My Lord is indeed the Hearer of prayer.  My Lord!  Make me establish regular prayer, and some of my posterity (also), our Lord!  And accept my prayer.  Our Lord!  Forgive me and my parents and believers on the Day when the account is cast." (Quran 14:35-41)

 

 

Now, years later, Abraham again in reunion with his son Ishmael, were to establish the honored House of God, the center of worship,  to which direction people would their face when offering prayers, and make it a site of pilgrimage.  There are many beautiful verses in the Quran describing the sanctity of the Kaaba and the purpose of its building.

 

"And when we assigned to Abraham the place of the House: ‘Do not associate with Me anything, and purify My House for those who circumambulate it, who stand in prayer, and who bow, and prostrate themselves (all in prayer).’  And proclaim the Pilgrimage (Hajj) among people, and they shall come to you on foot, and on every lean camel.  They shall come to you from every deep and distant mountain highways." (Quran 22:26)

 

"And when We made the House (the Kaaba) a resort for mankind and sanctuary, (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray).  And We took a covenant with Abraham and Ishmael that they should purify My House (the Kaaba) for those who compass it round, devote themselves (to worship) in it, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer)." (Quran 2:125)

 

The Kaaba is the first place of worship appointed for all of humanity for the purpose of guidance and blessing:

 

"Indeed the first House (of worship) appointed for humanity is that at Bakka: Full of blessing and of guidance for all the worlds.  In it are Signs Manifest; (such as), the Station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security; Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to God,- those who have the ability." (Quran 22:26-27)

 

Prophet Muhammad , may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, said:

 

"Indeed this place has been made sacred by God the day He created the heavens and the earth, and it will remain so until the Day of Judgment." (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim)

 

The Prayers of Abraham
Indeed, the building of a sanctuary to be held by all latter generations was one of the best forms of worship men of God could do.  They invoked God during their feat:

 

"Our Lord!  Accept from us (this duty).  Lo!  You, only You, are the Hearer, the Knower.  Our Lord!  And make us Muslims (submissive to You) and of our seed a Muslim nation (submissive to You), and show us our ways of worship, and forgive toward us.  Lo!  You, only You, are the Forgiving, the Merciful.  Our Lord!" (Quran 2:127-128)

 

"And (remember) when Abraham said, "My Lord, make this city (Mecca) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in God and the Last Day..." (Quran 2:126)

 

Abraham also prayed that a prophet be raised from the progeny of Ishmael, who would be the inhabitants this land, as the progeny of Isaac would inhabit the lands of Canaan.

 

"And raise up in their midst a Messenger from among them who shall recite to them Your revelations, and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall purify them of their sins.  Lo!  You, only You, are the Mighty, the Wise." (Quran 2:127-129)

 

The Kaabah built by Abraham and Ishmael and the Station of Abraham, which houses the footprint of Prophet Abraham.

 

Abraham’s prayer for a Messenger was answered several thousand years later when God raised Prophet Muhammad among the Arabs, and as Mecca was chosen to be a sanctuary and House of Worship for all humanity, so too was the Prophet of Mecca one sent to all humanity.

 

It was this pinnacle of the life of Abraham which was the completion of his purpose: the building of a place of worship for all of humanity, not for any chosen race or color, for the worship of the One True God.  Through the establishment of this house was the guarantee that God, the God to Whom he called and for Whom he made endless sacrifices, would be worshipped forever, without the association of any other God with him.  Indeed it was one of the greatest of favors bestowed upon any human.

 

 

Abraham & the Hajj Pilgrimage(Muslim)

 

Yearly, Muslims from around the world gather from all walks of life, the answer to the prayer of Abraham and the call to Pilgrimage.  This rite is called Hajj, and it commemorates many events of God’s beloved servant Abraham and his family.  After circling the Kaaba, a Muslim prays behind the Station of Abraham, the stone on which Abraham stood to build the Kaaba.  After the prayers, a Muslim drinks from the same well, called Zamzam, which flowed in answer to the Prayer of Abraham and Hagar, providing sustenance for Ishmael and Hagar, and was the cause for the inhabitation of the land. The rite of walking between Safaa and Marwah commemorates Hagar’s desperate search for water when she and her baby were alone in Mecca.  The sacrifice of an animal in Mina during Hajj, and by Muslims around the world in their own lands, is after the example of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son for God’s sake.  Lastly, the stoning of the stone pillars at Mina exemplifies Abraham’s rejection of satanic temptations to prevent him from sacrificing Ishmael.

 

 

 

The ‘Beloved servant of God’ about whom God said, "I will make you a leader to the nations,"  returned to Palestine and died there.

 

 

Conclusion:

 

 

In this stage in his life, Abraham, a young man with a prospective future, opposes his own family and nation in order to propagate a message of true monotheism, belief in the One True God, and rejection of all other false deities, whether they be stars and other celestial or earthly creations, or depictions of gods in the form of idols.  He was rejected, outcaste and punished for this belief, but he stood firm against all evil, ready to face even more in the future.

 

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